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Table 1 Functional studies of asparagine synthetase genes (ASN) and the conclusions made from those studies

From: Stress, nutrients and genotype: understanding and managing asparagine accumulation in wheat grain

Species Modulation Reported conclusions Study
Arabidopsis thaliana ASN1 overexpression Tolerance to N deprivation in germination Enhanced seed protein content Lam et al. (2003)
Slightly more N and protein content
Higher dry weight
Gaufichon et al. (2017)
CaAS1 overexpression Enhanced disease resistance Hwang et al. (2011)
ASN1 knockout Some disruption of seed formation
Slightly less N and more carbon
Aberrant cell patterns in the embryo
Gaufichon et al. (2017)
ASN1 silencing Negligible effect on virus replication Fernández-Calvino et al. (2016)
ASN2 overexpression Increased asparagine levels Igarashi et al. (2009)
ASN2 knockout Reduced salt tolerance Maaroufi-Dguimi et al. (2011)
Ammonium accumulation and defective growth Gaufichon et al. (2013)
ASN3 knockout No visible phenotype in development
No difference in seed carbon or N
Gaufichon et al. (2016)
Brassica napus (oilseed rape) Asna (E. coli) overexpression Poorer performance at low N application than WT
Better performance at high N
Seiffert et al. (2004)
Capsicum annuum (capsicum pepper) CaAS1 silencing Increased susceptibility to disease Hwang et al. (2011)
Lactuca sativa (Garden lettuce) Asna (E. coli) overexpression Faster vegetative growth and greater dry weight
Improved N status
Giannino et al. (2008)
Nicotiana benthamiana ASN silencing Morphological defects upon infection
Reduced virus accumulation
Fernández-Calvino et al. (2016)
Oryza sativa (rice) ASN1 knockout Reduced stature and fewer tillers Luo et al. (2019)
  1. N nitrogen