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Fig. 7 | CABI Agriculture and Bioscience

Fig. 7

From: Infection biology as the basis of integrated control of apple canker (Neonectria ditissima) in Northern Europe

Fig. 7

(Re-drawn from Palm 2009, with permission)

Efficacy of copper and captan fungicides against canker. Copper hydroxide (Cuprozin WP), copper oxychloride (Funguran) and captan (Merpan 80 WDG) treatments after harvest were evaluated in terms of trunk canker (a), twig canker (b) and uprooted trees due to severe trunk canker (c) in a young ‘Civni’/Rubens™ plantation which was at the end of its second season at the beginning of the trial. Sprays were made at the dosages (ha−1 m−1 canopy) and times indicated. The canopy height was 2.5 m in the first spraying season, and 3.0 m in the second season. Disease incidence assessments with removal of all cankers were made in June 2006, November 2006 and November 2007. Treatments labelled with asterisks were significantly different (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01) from the untreated but canker-pruned control according to Dunnett Contrast post-hoc analysis of contrast matrices using the ‘multcomp’ package (Hothorn et al. 2008) in the R software, version 4.0.2 (R Core Team 2020).

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