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Table 5 Yield loss value caused by individual IAS in billions USD. Numbers in brackets indicate high and low estimates

From: Towards estimating the economic cost of invasive alien species to African crop and livestock production

Host IAS Literature only Literature + survey
Maize Spodoptera frugiperda 6.9 (–) 9.4 (7.7–12.1)
Prostephanus truncatus 0.2 (0.1–0.3) 0.3 (0.2–0.5)
Chilo partellus 2.6 (2.1–3.1) 2.6 (2.1–3.1)
Cassava Phenacoccus manihoti 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 6.3 (5.5–7.3)
Tomato Phthorimaea absoluta 4.8 (3.6–6.7) 4.1 (3.2–5.6)
Banana BBTV 0.2 (–) 0.6 (0.5–0.6)
Mangoes (and citrus in survey) Bactrocera dorsalis 3.5 (1.7–10.6) 5.8 (4.4–10.0)
Total   18.2 29.1