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Table 2 The 11 anticoccidial compounds authorised as feed additives in the European Union (Abbas et al. 2011a; Anadón and Martínez-Larrañaga 2014; AnimalDrugs@FDA 2021; Belanger et al. 2013; Bozkurt et al. 2013; Castanon 2007; Chapman 1997; Clarke et al. 2014; Dorne et al. 2013; Dubey 2019; EU 2021; Gerhold 2014; Goetting et al. 2011; Hafez 2008; Harder and Haberkorn 1989; Kant et al. 2013; Noack et al. 2019; NOAH 2021; Salisch 1989)

From: Controlling the causative agents of coccidiosis in domestic chickens; an eye on the past and considerations for the future

Compound Category Effective Conc. ppm Mode of action Example products and Withdrawal period (days)a Year of introduction
Lasalocid Divalent ionophore 75–125 Disruption of ion balance across biological membranes and therefore membrane potential, stimulation of mitochondrial ATPase activity Avatec—5 1977
Maduramicin Monovalent glycosidic ionophore 5–6 Disruption of ion balance across biological membranes by formation of complexes with lipid soluble cations Cygro—5 1989
Monensin Monovalent ionophore 100–110 Combines with sodium and potassium cations to form lipid-soluble complexes causing NA+ influx and disruption of membrane permeability to result in osmotic cell lysis Elancoban—1 1971
Coxidin—1
Monimax (with nicarbazin)—0
Narasin Monovalent ionophore 60–80 Forms dynamically reversible lipid soluble complexes with cations which alters transmembrane ion gradients and electrical potentials. Commonly used in combination with nicarbazin Monteban—0 1986
Maxiban (with nicarbazin)—0
Salinomycin Monovalent ionophore 44–66 Complexly binding monovalent cations, particularly potassium ions, promoting efflux into the cell mitochondria and cytoplasm Sacox—0 1983
Semduramicin Monovalent glycosidic ionophore 25 Disruption of ion balance across biological membranes by formation of complexes with lipid soluble cations Aviax—5 1995
Decoquinate Synthetic 30 Inhibition of the parasite mitochondrial electron transport and therefore respiration Deccox—3 1967
Diclazuril Synthetic 1 Interference in nucleic acid and parasite wall synthesis producing thickened incomplete oocyst walls, disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential Coxiril—0 1990
Clinacox—5
Halofuginone Synthetic 3 Unknown Stenorol—5 1975
Nicarbazin Synthetic 125 Acts as a calcium ionophore by increasing lipoprotein lipase activity, interferes with cholesterol metabolism and the formation of vitelline membrane. Commonly used in combination with narasin Maxiban (with narasin)—0 1955
Monimax (with monensin)—0
Robenidine Synthetic 33 Respiratory chain phosphorylation, ATPase and oxidative phosphorylation inhibition and energy metabolism interference, prevention of merozoite development Robenz—5 1972
  1. aWithdrawal periods vary between production systems with the majority of products not licenced for use in egg laying birds