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Table 4 Trait associations reported in Eragrostis literature

From: Value of teff (Eragrostis tef) genetic resources to support breeding for conventional and smallholder farming: a review

Genetic materials Trait Associated variables Association References
163 RILs Grain yield DH, DM, PH, PL, SB, CL, NCI, LFCL, SCL, FCD, SCD, PW, LI Positive Tefera et al. (2003)
60 genotypes Grain yield DH, DM, CD, PL, NPB, FPS, SPP Positive Assefa et al. (2002)
10 improved varieties Grain yield BY, SPP, PY Positive Teklu and Tefera (2005)
10 improved varieties Grain yield KPS Negative Teklu and Tefera (2005)
15 landraces Grain yield HGW, PH, PL/SB, NIC, HI Positive Tadele et al. (2013)
36 brown-seeded genotypes Grain yield DH, GFP, DM, PL, SB, HI Positive Jifar et al. (2015)
6 teff genotypes Grain yield Excised leaf water loss Negative Teferra et al. (2000)
24 semi-dwarf teff lines Grain yield DM, PH, CL, PL, PDL, SCL, SCD Positive Jifar et al. (2017)
196 RILs Plant height DH, PL, SB Positive Chanyalew et al. (2009)
15 landraces Plant height SB, HSW, HI Positive Tadele et al. (2013)
320 teff genotypes Plant height LI, PR, BS Positive Muluken et al. (2020)
320 teff genotypes Tiller number LI, BS Negative (Muluken et al. 2020)
24 semi-dwarf teff lines Fertile tiller DH, DM Negative Jifar et al. (2017)
24 semi-dwarf teff lines Fertile tiller PH, CL, PL, PDL, SCD Positive Jifar et al. (2017)
36 brown-seeded genotypes Culm length DH, DM, GFP, PL, GY Negative Jifar et al. (2015)
3850 landraces Panicle length Precipitation, DH, DM Positive Woldeyohannes et al. (2020)
163 RILs Peduncle length CL, PL, PH, FCL, SCL, CDF, CDS Positive Tefera et al. (2003)
24 semi-dwarf teff lines Lodging index DH, DM, CL, PDL Positive Jifar et al. (2017)
24 semi-dwarf teff lines Spikelet per panicle PH, CL, PL, PDL, SCL, SCD Positive Jifar et al. (2017)
24 semi-dwarf teff lines Spikelet per panicle DH Negative Jifar et al. (2017)
24 semi-dwarf teff lines Thousand kernel weight SCD Positive Jifar et al. (2017)
24 semi-dwarf teff lines Thousand kernel weight DH, DM Negative Jifar et al. (2017)
3850 landraces Grain filling period Temperature Negative Woldeyohannes et al. (2020)
60 genotypes Harvest index DM, GFP, SPP, GYPP Negative Assefa et al. (2002)
3850 landraces Altitude Temperature Negative Woldeyohannes et al. (2020)
3850 landraces Soil pH Altitude, precipitation Negative Woldeyohannes et al. (2020)
3850 landraces Brown seed Altitude, soil acidity Positive Woldeyohannes et al. (2020)
3 species of Eragrostis Leaf tensile strength Drought tolerance Positive Balsamo et al. (2006)
6 teff genotypes Drought susceptibility index ELWL, RGR Positive Teferra et al. (2000)
45 cultivars Root depth SW, RW, PH, CD, CT, RT, RSR, RLD, TN Positive Ayele et al. (2001)
45 cultivars Root length density SW, RW, RN, RSR, TN Positive Ayele et al. (2001)
45 cultivars Root length density Longer duration of teff survival Positive Ayele et al. (2001)
16 genotypes Osmotic adjustment LTR, RGR Positive Degu et al. (2008)
16 genotypes Maximum root length LTR, RGR Positive Degu et al. (2008)
12 cultivars Canopy temperatures ELWL Negative Takele (2001)
12 cultivars Canopy temperatures Grain yield Negative Takele (2001)
12 cultivars ELWL Grain yields under moisture deficits Negative Takele (2001)
1 improved variety Grain amino acids content Soil properties (P, Mg, Na) Positive Abewa et al. (2019)
1 improved variety Grain crude fiber Soil pH,  Ca Positive Abewa et al. (2019)
1 improved variety Grain color index of saturation Soil properties (pH, C, Ca, Mg, and S) Positive Abewa et al. (2019)
36 improved varieties Grain yield NDF, ADF, ADL, SBM, STY Positive Jifar et al. (2018)
36 improved varieties Grain yield CP, ME, IVOMD Negative Jifar et al. (2018)
36 improved varieties Crude protein ME, IVOMD Positive Jifar et al. (2018)
  1. RILs: Recombinant inbred lines; DH: Days to heading; DM: Days to maturity; GFP: Grain filling period; SB: Above ground biomass; PW: Panicle weight; PL: Panicle length; FT: Fertile tillers per plant; SPP: Number of spikelet per panicle; FPS: Number of floret per spikelet; KPS: Kernels per spikelet; PH: Plant height; CL: Culm length; NCI: Number of culm internodes; CD: Culm diameter; SCD: Second basal culm internode diameter; LI: Lodging index; HSW: Hundred seed weight; GY: Grain yield; HI: Harvest index; ELWL: Excised leaf water loss; RGR: Relative growth rate; SW: Shoot weight; RW: Root weight; CT: Culm thickness; RT: Root thickness; RSR: Root shoot ratio; RLD: Root length density; TN: Tiller number; LTP: Leaf turgor pressure; RGR: Relative growth rate; P: Phosphorus; Na: Sodium; S: Sulfur; Ca: Calcium; Mg: Manganese; C: Soil organic carbon; CP: Crude protein; NDF: Neutral detergent fiber; ADF: Acid detergent fiber; ADL: Acid detergent lignin; ME: Metabolic energy; IVOMD: In vitro organic matter digestibility; STY: Straw yield; PR: Pushing resistance; BS: Base failure moment